Project management and 4D and 5D BIM, an “obligatory” passage
In applying the BIM model, time and cost planning relies heavily on the Project / Program management methodology and in particular on knowledge areas relating to managing times, costs, risks, communication, integration and contingencies.
What are the points of contact and the collaboration systems between the various figures that operate based on these new methodologies?
The professional figures dedicated to BIM
Let’s start by analysing the figures dedicated to BIM according to the 11337 Standard and those dedicated to Project Management. Generally there are 3 figures dedicated to the digital management of information processes in the construction sector, consisting of two types: the first two operate at the management level and the other at the operational level. On the management side, we have the Information Manager (BIM Manager), and the Information Coordinator, (BIM Coordinator). On the operational side, instead, the information modeller of graphic models dominates the scene, namely the BIM Specialist. The Information Manager looks after the drafting of the information specifications and/or offer and is the reference figure for the coordinator, consulted by the contract manager or project manager to report on the design stages. The Information Coordinator, the second management figure, looks after the correct application of the general rules set out by the manager and defines specific information relating to the contract. This figure also performs all coordination activities and obtains the desired results, participates in all coordination meetings relating to the same models, directs the work of the modellers therefore working in close collaboration with the contract manager or the PM. Finally, we have the graphic model information modeller (BIM Specialist or BIM Modeller), operational figure responsible for preparing and updating the objects and models and the extraction of the related data. This figure works closely with the coordinator to whom they report any event of relevance to the information process.
The Design phase
The 4D and 5D part of BIM
LOD and QTO
The design variations and phases that develop around a BIM model through the LOD (Level of Detail) must be correlated in terms of the QTO (Quantity Take Off) documentation to a measurement which in turn is linked to a WP as part of a WBS that defines the relative timelines. For example, in a preliminary design (LOD 200) for a reinforced concrete element we can “settle” on an incidence per cubic metre of concrete of the kg of steel necessary for the reinforcement specified in the design. During the computational phase therefore, from the first estimates, we will tie the parametric object to a work process. This link will remain fixed to the benefit of future dimensional changes and detailed design, such as when we will be provided with the reinforcement details from the executive plan (LOD 400) having the possibility to determine the future benefits to the Facility Management (LOD 500) through the As Build.
In fact, in reference to the design, the planning of the same benefits from advanced project management techniques in terms of virtual environment aspects and the fact that the continuous changes and studies of the models require “agile” project management techniques to avoid unnecessary work. It is hoped that real computational models (different from QTO) will start being used soon, which will facilitate the various input and output phases of the design. Starting from the BEP (Building Execution Plan), in fact, the design part becomes exponentially crucial for all subsequent phases. In the next article we will analyse the execution phase.