For the management of historical and archaeological architectural heritage the applications of GIS 3D, meaning the Geographic IT system that “is composed by a series of software systems to acquire, archive, extract, elaborate and visualize special data in the real world”, remains isolated as there are insufficient cases to be brought as examples for a standardization of the method. As an alternative, the scientific international community has undertaken a path that combines the possibilities of the use of HBIM in historical architecture and archaeology.
It is currently an argument for discussion on which are the technologies that are more suitable for the documentation and management of historical heritage. The ideologies come together creating a model that gives stratified information in four dimensions and not only in three. In this way we are not solely taking of geometric model but of a real database that is able to give as much information as possible that belongs to different fields.
As has been proved, in the case of an ex novo design the BIM approach is the winning one. The use of BIM in the case of historical context, which contains a rich informative heritage (e.g. documents, archive drafts, historical and more recent photos), has engaged the scientific community over the last few years. In fact, the acronym has been changed to HBIM (Historical Building Information Modelling) when we are dealing with the application in accordance with historical buildings and archaeological infrastructures. The main difference between the BIM and HBIM lies on the type of information that the two types of digital models will conserve.
BIM calls for and coordinates different professional figures for the integrated design, planning time, modalities, organization and work on a construction site. On the other hand, HBIM is more specific to the phase of geometric knowledge and history of the building, through evaluation, the state
of conservation of the materials, where it represents a three-dimensional catalogue oriented
to documentation and planning of the maintenance interventions.